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**Earth and space science**

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This activity models grazing incidence reflection by using students as the “sea of electrons” provided generally by metallic bonding on the surface of a metal. A tossed ball is used to represent a photon of light and the ball tosser represents... (View More) the object giving off the photon. This activity is designed to illustrate that different photons may be absorbed or reflected, depending upon their energy to illustrate how the telescope utilizes grazing optics to focus X-rays.The activity requires balls of various sizes (ping pong ball, golf ball, tennis ball, basketball or bowling ball). The activity guide includes discussion questions and instructions for using the video "Building the Coolest X-ray Satellite: Astro-E2" in the classroom. (View Less)

In this interactive, online activity, bias is explored when the students decide which of several sampling methods are biased. They see how bias affects the percentage of irregular galaxies determined to be in the sample from the Deep Field. After... (View More) completing this activity students will be able to analyze and identify sampling methods that reduce bias. Student may work independently or in small groups to complete each activity. This activity is apart of the online exploration, Galaxy Hunter. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. (View Less)

In this interactive, online activity students elect a simple random sample to draw conclusions from data as presented in the Hubble Deep Field-North and Hubble Deep Field-South images. The optimal sample size is determined by exploring sample... (View More) variability, which is introduced through a min/max plot. The mean and median are added in order to pinpoint the spot where variability settles down and the measures of central tendency approach a constant value. The point where that first occurs is the smallest reasonable sample size. Students may work independently or in small groups to complete each activity. This interactive online activity is apart of the online exploration "Galaxy Hunter." Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. Use sample variability to determine optimal sample size. (View Less)

This interactive, online activity provides a method for generating waves using a computer. Students can select the energy they want the waves to have, observe how the waves appear on the screen, and then measure the frequency and wavelength of the... (View More) observed waves. Upon completion of this activity, students will have uncovered the relationship among frequency, wavelength, and energy. Students may complete this activity independently or in small groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title page of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is part of the online exploration "Star Light, Star Bright" that focuses on the electromagnetic spectrum and that is available on the Amazing Space website. (View Less)

In this assessment activity, students generate a data sample from either the Hubble Deep Field-North or Hubble Deep Field-South images, and compare the sample to data from the unselected field. This provides students with a real-life example of how... (View More) statistics can be used by scientists. After completing this activity students will be able to compare sample data with the population parameter to determine accuracy of sampling techniques and use statistical data to make conjectures about the universe. This interactive online activity is part of the online exploration “Galaxy Hunter”. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. (View Less)

In this activity, students use base-two slide rules, log tapes, and calculators to practice raising exponents in base notation and pulling down exponents in log notation. Students will develop an understanding that antilog notation expresses the... (View More) exact same idea as raising a base to a power. This activity is activity C2 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this activity students develop a simplified log table using information from their Log Tapes. Then they use it to solve arithmetic problems by looking up and combining logs, and finding the antilog. Because these problems are extremely simple,... (View More) students appreciate the logic of logarithms without getting bogged down in the arithmetic detail and error. This is activity B3 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

This 28-minute film was created to explain how our current understanding of the Milky Way was reached using many different wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum. Please note, the link is to a direct download of the video; this is a large file -... (View More) 336 MB. (View Less)

This is an activity about using large numbers in astronomy. Learners will first estimate how long it would take to count to a billion, if it was a full-time job. Then, they will judge their estimates using a calculator to get a more definitive... (View More) answer. Finally, they will calculate the time or speed needed to travel to the star, Proxima Centauri. This is Actividad 13.4 as part of El Universo a Sus Pies, a Spanish-language curriculum, available for purchase. (View Less)