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**Earth and space science**

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In this lesson, students measure the size of several galaxies to reproduce a plot of Hubble's Law. The goal of this lesson is to give students the chance to simulate the process that led to the notion that the universe is expanding, provide insight... (View More) into how this idea was reached, and inform students about the nature of our universe. This lesson is part of the Cosmic Times teacher's guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1929 Cosmic Times Poster. (View Less)

In this interactive, online activity, bias is explored when the students decide which of several sampling methods are biased. They see how bias affects the percentage of irregular galaxies determined to be in the sample from the Deep Field. After... (View More) completing this activity students will be able to analyze and identify sampling methods that reduce bias. Student may work independently or in small groups to complete each activity. This activity is apart of the online exploration, Galaxy Hunter. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. (View Less)

In this interactive, online activity students elect a simple random sample to draw conclusions from data as presented in the Hubble Deep Field-North and Hubble Deep Field-South images. The optimal sample size is determined by exploring sample... (View More) variability, which is introduced through a min/max plot. The mean and median are added in order to pinpoint the spot where variability settles down and the measures of central tendency approach a constant value. The point where that first occurs is the smallest reasonable sample size. Students may work independently or in small groups to complete each activity. This interactive online activity is apart of the online exploration "Galaxy Hunter." Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. Use sample variability to determine optimal sample size. (View Less)

In this assessment activity, students generate a data sample from either the Hubble Deep Field-North or Hubble Deep Field-South images, and compare the sample to data from the unselected field. This provides students with a real-life example of how... (View More) statistics can be used by scientists. After completing this activity students will be able to compare sample data with the population parameter to determine accuracy of sampling techniques and use statistical data to make conjectures about the universe. This interactive online activity is part of the online exploration “Galaxy Hunter”. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. (View Less)

In this activity, students graph second and third order functions, discovering an inverse relationship between squares and square roots and between cubes and cube roots. Students graph these functions on both linear grid (evenly spaced numbers), and... (View More) a log-log grid (evenly space exponents). Graph lines that curve on linear grids transform into straight lines on the log-log grids, with slopes equal to their exponential powers. This activity is activity E3 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this interactive, online activity, students practice estimation skills as they begin to explore the Hubble Deep Field image. Students first give a rough estimate of the number of objects in the image. They then use representative sampling... (View More) techniques to improve upon their original estimates. Finally, they use their estimates to calculate the number of galaxies in the universe. Students can work through the activity independently or in groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title page of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is part of the online exploration "The Hubble Deep Field Academy" that is available on the Amazing Space website. (View Less)

This is a lesson about representative sampling. When given parts of the Hubble Deep Field image, learners will count the number of galaxies in one sample section of the image. Then, they will calculate how many galaxies there are in each whole image... (View More) and how many objects the Hubble Space Telescope could see in the entire Universe. This is Actividad 8.6 as part of El Universo a Sus Pies, a Spanish-language curriculum available for purchase. (View Less)

This is an activity about digital imagery and technology. Learners will create a picture using graph paper containing ones and zeroes and instruct others to reproduce it without showing it to them, just like digital technology. After, in groups,... (View More) they will work on constructing a four-color digital image of the Sun from satellite data. This is Actividad 10.3 as part of El Universo a Sus Pies, a Spanish-language curriculum, available for purchase. (View Less)

This is a lesson about representative sampling. When given parts of the Hubble Deep Field image, learners will count the number of galaxies in one sample section of the image. Then, they will calculate how many galaxies there are in each whole image... (View More) and how many objects the Hubble Space Telescope could see in the entire Universe. This is Activity H-6 of Universe at Your Fingertips 2.0: A Collection of Activities and Resources for Teaching Astronomy DVD-ROM, which is available for purchase. (View Less)

This is a lesson about sampling and estimation. Learners will make an object called a sampling window through which they will first count the number of stars on a printed page and estimate the total number of stars on the page, then count and... (View More) estimate the number of letters on a newspaper page, and finally count and estimate the number of stars in the nighttime sky. While most of this activity can be done in a classroom, the final part of the activity requires access to a darkened sky location at night. This is Actividad 7.1 as part of El Universo a Sus Pies, a Spanish-language curriculum available for purchase. (View Less)