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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This collection of math problems is based on a weekly series of space and Earth science problems distributed to teachers during the 2013-2014 school year. The problems were intended for students looking for additional challenges in the math and... (View More) physical science curriculum and were created to be authentic glimpses of modern science and engineering issues, often involving actual research data. Includes information for teachers and answer key. (View Less)

As science extension activities, this book of problems introduces students to mapping the shape of the Milky Way galaxy, and how to identify the various kinds of galaxies in our universe. Students also learn about the shapes and sizes of other... (View More) galaxies in our universe as they learn how to classify them. The math problems cover basic scientific notation skills and how they apply to working with astronomically large numbers. It also provides exercises in plotting points on a Cartesian plane to map the various features of our Milky Way. (View Less)

Students will learn about black holes through reading a NASA press release and viewing a NASA eClips video segment. Then students will use tables and mathematical expressions to compare black hole sizes and temperatures. Common Core State Standards... (View More) for Mathematics and English Language Arts are identified. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school textbooks. The modules cover specific math topics at multiple levels of difficulty with real-world data and use the 5E instructional sequence. (View Less)

This is an activity about using large numbers in astronomy. Learners will first estimate how long it would take to count to a billion, if it was a full-time job. Then, they will judge their estimates using a calculator to get a more definitive... (View More) answer. Finally, they will calculate the time or speed needed to travel to the star, Proxima Centauri. This is Actividad 13.4 as part of El Universo a Sus Pies, a Spanish-language curriculum, available for purchase. (View Less)

This is an activity about telescopes. Learners will first measure several circles to determine their diameters and calculate their areas. Afterwards, they will cover each circle entirely with pennies and record how many pennies are needed for each... (View More) circle size. The concept to be explored is that a telescope with a larger lens or mirror is able to collect more light than another telescope with a smaller-diameter lens or mirror. This is Actividad 10.2 as part of El Universo a Sus Pies, a Spanish-language curriculum, available for purchase. (View Less)

This is a set of two activities about time. First, in Cosmic Calendar, learners will scale the evolution of the Universe to a one-year calendar, with the Big Bang occurring on the first moment of January first. Then, in Time-Line Scale Model of the... (View More) Age of the Earth, learners will use a 10-meter strip of paper to create a timeline for the evolution of our planet's surface, atmosphere and life. This is Actividad 8.2 as part of the El Universo a Sus Pies, a Spanish-language curriculum, available for purchase. (View Less)

This is an activity about telescopes. Learners will first measure several circles to determine their diameters and calculate their areas. Afterwards, they will cover each circle entirely with pennies and record how many pennies are needed for each... (View More) circle size. The concept to be explored is that as the diameter of a telescope lens or mirror increases, the telescope is thus able to collect more light. This is Activity J-1 of Universe at Your Fingertips 2.0: A Collection of Activities and Resources for Teaching Astronomy DVD-ROM, which is available for purchase. (View Less)