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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This is a booklet containing 15 problems that incorporate data and information from the Hinode solar observatory. The problems involve math skills such as finding the scale of an image to determine actual physical sizes in images, time calculations,... (View More) volumes of cylinders, graph analysis, and scientific notation. Learners will use mathematics to explore solar science topics such as sunspot structure, spectroscopy, solar rotation, magnetic fields, density and temperature of hot gases, and solar flares. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)

Mathematicians often argue that anything which can be represented numerically or algebraically can also be represented geometrically. This is perhaps true even to the extent that simple numeric calculations can be demonstrated geometrically. This... (View More) example illustrates one such geometric process of addition. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

In this activity, students engage in an ongoing investigation to find patterns of sunlight and shadow in a classroom (or any room that gets sunlight) at different times of the day and different times of the year. Students look for repeating... (View More) patterns, keep a log to describe and sketch observations of when and where certain easily recognized patters appear and turn the room into a solar calendar that may survive into the future for other classes to use. Part 1 of this activity requires occasional note-taking and casual observation over the course of a day. Part 2 requires 30-60 minutes to create the calendar record, then casual observation and note-taking throughout the school year. The lesson plan includes a math extension activity and background information about the Sun Dagger at Chaco Canyon. This activity is the third lesson in the Ancient Eyes Look to the Skies curriculum guide. (View Less)

This is an activity about angular measurement. Learners will explore the relationship between angular size, actual size, and distance by using their finger, thumb and fist as a unit of angular measurement. Includes teacher background, student data... (View More) sheet, and extensions. (View Less)

In this activity, students work in teams to calculate relative air mass and demonstrate how solar elevation angle affects the intensity of light that reaches an observer on the ground. The resource includes a student data sheet. It is part of the... (View More) Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE Aerosol protocol. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program. (View Less)

Materials Cost: 1 cent - $1 per group of students

Students will work in teams to create visual models to assist in understanding the volume of surface ozone in the air. Students construct cubes of different volumes and compare them to get a feel for parts per million by volume and parts per billion... (View More) by volume. Resource includes a paper template for creating the cube and a student worksheet. This is a learning activity associated with the GLOBE Atmosphere investigations and is supported by the Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacher’s Guide. (View Less)

Materials Cost: 1 cent - $1 per group of students

In this activity, students learn the basics of the horizon, direction and the rising and settings of the Sun and stars by making a schoolyard "medicine wheel" with sidewalk chalk on playground asphalt. Medicine wheels are stone rings constructed by... (View More) the Plains people of North America which may have been used as a calendar system based on observations of objects in the sky. This activity requires a flat area at least 6 meters across – preferably asphalt or concrete – that has a good view of the sky. It can be done as a whole class activity. Part 1 of this activity involves constructing the medicine wheel (about 10-15 minutes). Part 2 of this activity involves making ongoing observations throughout the year at noon (about 10-15 minutes for each observation). Part 3 involves making observations from the wheel during after-school hours to observe the rising or setting points of stars, the Sun and Moon. Discussion questions, background information and a math extension activity are included. This activity is the second lesson in the Ancient Eyes Look to the Skies curriculum guide. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 24 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scientific notation, simple algebra, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space... (View More) science topics including solar storms, solar energy, coronal mass ejections, and doppler shift, among others. (View Less)

In this activity, students work in teams to calculate relative air mass and demonstrate how solar elevation angle affects the intensity of light that reaches an observer on the ground. The resource includes a student data sheet. This learning... (View More) resource is part of the Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE Aerosol protocol. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program. (View Less)

Materials Cost: 1 cent - $1 per group of students

This is a booklet containing 20 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including equations and substitution, time calculations, reading, algebra, and more. Each set of problems is contained on one page. Learners will use mathematics to... (View More) explore space science topics related to our Sun, auroras, solar features, space weather, sunspots, and solar storms. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)