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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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In this problem set, learners will create and use a differential equation of rate-of-change of atmospheric carbon dioxide. They will refer to the "Keeling Curve" graph and information on the sources and sinks of carbon on Earth to create the... (View More) equation and apply it to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 31 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scientific notation, simple algebra, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space... (View More) science topics including black holes, ice on Mercury, a mathematical model of the Sun's interior, sunspots, the heliopause, and coronal mass ejections, among many others. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 87 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scale, geometry, graph analysis, fractions, unit conversions, scientific notation, simple algebra, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one... (View More) page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space science topics in the areas of Earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics, among many others. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)

This lesson is a case study of atmospheric ozone levels developed from observations over Thule, Greenland in 2002. Students will download a composite graph of this stratospheric ozone data taken from two different sources: the SAGE III satellite and... (View More) an ozone sensor on a weather balloon. Instructions for downloading the graph to either a computer or a graphing calculator (the TI-84 Silver Plus is recommended) are included in the lesson. Students will then compare and analyze the two data sets shown on the graph. Emphasis is placed on the applicability of using the weather balloon data to validate the satellite data. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, and an online glossary. (View Less)

This article describes an approach designed to decrease math anxiety and teach students about the use of mathematical symbols simplifying radicals. A deck of cards is used in a demonstration, and a problem set using real life examples to master the... (View More) use of radicals is included. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This is a lesson about the design and operation of an ion propulsion engine. Learners will study the essential components and variables of an ion propulsion system. Activities include an on-line ion propulsion engine simulation and design. Included... (View More) are changes in energy and fuel consumption as a result of variable changes (dependent/independent variable relationships). This is activity 5 of 5 in Structure and Properties of Matter: Ion Propulsion. (View Less)

This is a lesson about the science supporting the design and operation of an ion propulsion engine. Learners will study the concepts of formation and discharge of charged particles, attractive and repulsive forces between charged particles, and the... (View More) properties of ions in the plasma phase. The lesson may or may not be completed on-line. This is activity 2 of 5 in Structure and Properties of Matter: Ion Propulsion. (View Less)

This is a lesson about the path of one xenon ion through an ion propulsion engine. Learners will focus on what a single xenon ion sees and does as it goes through the reactions and processes that provide the ion jet propulsion engine's thrust. They... (View More) will learn to adopt an informed, experimental method for use in a later lesson. A tightly-scripted slide-by-slide presentation is provided. Preconceptions are discussed. This is activity 4 of 5 in Structure and Properties of Matter: Ion Propulsion. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 36 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scientific notation, algebra, geometry, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space... (View More) science topics including radiation effects on humans and technology, solar science, and other mathematics topics. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 15 problems that incorporate data and information from the Hinode solar observatory. The problems involve math skills such as finding the scale of an image to determine actual physical sizes in images, time calculations,... (View More) volumes of cylinders, graph analysis, and scientific notation. Learners will use mathematics to explore solar science topics such as sunspot structure, spectroscopy, solar rotation, magnetic fields, density and temperature of hot gases, and solar flares. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)