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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This is a set of three, one-page problems about the scale of objects in images returned by spacecraft. Learners will measure scaled drawings using high-resolution images of the lunar and martian surfaces. Options are presented so that students may... (View More) learn about the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission through a NASA press release or by viewing a NASA eClips video [4 min]. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and English Language Arts are identified. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school. (View Less)

This is an online set of information about astronomical alignments of ancient structures and buildings. Learners will read background information about the alignments to the Sun in such structures as the Great Pyramid, Chichen Itza, and others.... (View More) Next, the site contains 10 short problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including determining the scale of a photo, measuring and drawing angles, plotting data on a graph, and creating an equation to match a set of data. Each set of problems is contained on one page and all of the sets utilize real-world problems relating to astronomical alignments of ancient structures. Each problem set is flexible and can be used on its own, together with other sets, or together with related lessons and materials selected by the educator. This was originally included as a folder insert for the 2010 Sun-Earth Day. (View Less)

This is a building-wide enrichment program consisting of a series of posters and accompanying questions designed to pique student interest in science concepts and their application to the world in which we live. Accompanying each poster is a series... (View More) of question sheets of increasing difficulty levels that students answer and submit at a designated location (collection box, office, etc.). Random prize drawings can be used to recognize/celebrate student participation. The purpose is to expose students to and create school-wide interest about science so students want to "STOP for Science" as displays are changed throughout the year. Although the focus is building-wide, content can be linked to classrooms through use of accompanying teacher resource guides. The website includes several resources for program facilitators, including posters, answer sheets, podcasts, implementation guide and webinars for facilitators. The program targets grades 3-6 for independent use, but can be used with grades K-2 with adult or upper grade level assistance. Each poster in the series stands alone and is not tied to concepts in other posters. Therefore, posters can be displayed in any sequence desired. (View Less)

Math skills are applied throughout this investigation of windows. Starting with basic window shapes, students determine area and complete a cost analysis, then do the same for windows of unconventional shapes. Students will examine photographs taken... (View More) by astronauts through windows on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station to explore the inverse relationship between lens size and area covered. This lesson is part of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program. (View Less)

This is an activity about the period of the Sun’s rotation. Learners will select images of the Sun from the SOHO spacecraft image archive. Next, they will calculate an image scale for the selected solar images. Then, they will use it to help... (View More) determine the actual speed of sunspots based on measurements of their motion in the selected Sun images and, finally, determine the period of the Sun's rotation. This activity requires access to the internet to obtain images from the SOHO image archive. This is Activity 3 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)

This self-paced, interactive tutorial enables learners to identify and measure iceberg size from remotely-sensed satellite images. Two techniques are explored: the geometric shape method, which provides a rapid rough estimate of area; and the pixel... (View More) count method, which employs special software to measure the size more accurately. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the second of three modules in the tutorial, Hunting Icebergs. (Note: requires Java plug-in) (View Less)

In this problem set, learners will calculate the parts-per-hundred measure for different scenarios. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

This problem set is about scale. Using a ruler, learners will measure the distance between two points on a satellite image and determine the scale of the image and other information to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is... (View More) part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change. (View Less)

This self-paced, interactive tutorial guides learners through the decision-making process in locating data that will enable the identification of tabular icebergs, including: selecting the appropriate satellite orbit, and identifying the optimal... (View More) solar and infrared wavelength values to discriminate between water and ice in remotely-sensed images. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Hunting Icebergs. (Note: requires Java plug-in) (View Less)

This is an activity about measurement. Learners will label key points and features on a rectangular equal-area map and measure the distance between pairs of points in order to calculate the actual physical distance on the Sun that the point pairs... (View More) represent. This is Activity 5 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)