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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This is an activity about the period of the Sun's rotation. Learners will use image of the Sun from the SOHO spacecraft and a transparent latitude/ longitude grid called a Stonyhurst Disk to track the motion of sunspots in terms of degrees of... (View More) longitude. Using this angular motion measurement, learners will then calculate the sunspot’s angular velocity in order to determine the rotation period of the Sun. This activity requires access to the internet to obtain images from the SOHO image archive. This is Activity 4 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)

In this problem set, learners will analyze an image of Washington, DC, taken from orbit. They will determine scale and take measurements of several features in the image. A link to more images taken from the International Space Station and the... (View More) answer key are provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change. (View Less)

This is an activity about coronal mass ejections. Learners will calculate the velocity and acceleration of a coronal mass ejection, or CME, based on its position in a series of images from the Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) instrument... (View More) on NASA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. This is Activity 2 of a larger resource, Exploring the Sun. The NASA spacecraft missions represented by this material include SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, and SDO. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 87 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scale, geometry, graph analysis, fractions, unit conversions, scientific notation, simple algebra, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one... (View More) page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space science topics in the areas of Earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics, among many others. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)

In a mechanical demonstration of the Pythagorean theorem, this example provides a practical, hands-on method for deriving square roots using a carpenter's square. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of... (View More) brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This is an activity about utilizing proportional mathematics to determine the height of lunar features. Learners will use the length of shadows to calculate the height of some of the lunar features. This activity is Astronomy Activity 6 in a larger... (View More) resource entitled Space Update. (View Less)

In this activity, students learn about the changing configuration of the continents over geological time resulting from plate tectonics. Using a map pair, students measure the difference in distance between continents 94 million years ago and today,... (View More) and calculate the speed at which the plates have moved. The resource includes the images and a student worksheet. This is an activity from Space Update, a collection of resources and activities provided to teach about Earth and space. Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. (View Less)

In this data exploration activity, students will access, download and graph authentic ozone data for four different locations on Earth. The ozone levels at the four sites are compared and analyzed, and students investigate the cause of changes in... (View More) ozone concentration over time. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, an online glossary and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics. (View Less)

This is an activity about the relative sizes of the Earth and the Moon and the distance between them. Learners will inflate a balloon to the approximate size of the moon in relation to a standard globe. They will then hypothesize as to the correct... (View More) distance between the two and begin to calculate angular size. This is Astronomy Activity 1 in a larger resource, Space Update. (View Less)

This is an activity about the Venus Transit and how it helped astronomers determine the scale of the solar system. Learners will use measurement, ratios, and graphing to construct a model of the solar system and determine the relationship of each... (View More) planet to the Sun. They will explore the scales needed to represent the size of the planets and the distances to the Sun. This activity corresponds to the NASA CONNECT video, titled Venus Transit, and has supplemental questions to support the video viewing. (View Less)