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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This is an activity about searching online data archives for solar wind events. Learners will find at least three episodes of increased solar wind activity impacting Earth using direct measurements of solar wind velocity and density. Then, they will... (View More) characterize each events by its rise time, the time it takes for the solar wind speed to rise from normal levels to the peak speed of the event, and the percentage increase in solar wind velocity. This is Activity 11 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)

This is an activity about the period of the Sun's rotation. Learners will use image of the Sun from the SOHO spacecraft and a transparent latitude/ longitude grid called a Stonyhurst Disk to track the motion of sunspots in terms of degrees of... (View More) longitude. Using this angular motion measurement, learners will then calculate the sunspot’s angular velocity in order to determine the rotation period of the Sun. This activity requires access to the internet to obtain images from the SOHO image archive. This is Activity 4 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)

In this problem set, learners will analyze an image of Washington, DC, taken from orbit. They will determine scale and take measurements of several features in the image. A link to more images taken from the International Space Station and the... (View More) answer key are provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change. (View Less)

In this problem set, learners will determine the scale of a false-color infrared satellite image of Paris and measure several of the features depicted in it. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth... (View More) Science and Climate Change. (View Less)

In this problem set, learners will analyze a true-color satellite image of an Icelandic glacier that has been retreating since 1973. They will determine the scale of the image to take measurements of the retreat, such as volume of ice lost. Answer... (View More) key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change. (View Less)

This is an activity about coronal mass ejections. Learners will calculate the velocity and acceleration of a coronal mass ejection, or CME, based on its position in a series of images from the Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) instrument... (View More) on NASA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. This is Activity 2 of a larger resource, Exploring the Sun. The NASA spacecraft missions represented by this material include SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, and SDO. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 87 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scale, geometry, graph analysis, fractions, unit conversions, scientific notation, simple algebra, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one... (View More) page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space science topics in the areas of Earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics, among many others. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)

In a mechanical demonstration of the Pythagorean theorem, this example provides a practical, hands-on method for deriving square roots using a carpenter's square. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of... (View More) brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This is an activity about utilizing proportional mathematics to determine the height of lunar features. Learners will use the length of shadows to calculate the height of some of the lunar features. This activity is Astronomy Activity 6 in a larger... (View More) resource entitled Space Update. (View Less)

In this data exploration activity, students will access, download and graph authentic ozone data for four different locations on Earth. The ozone levels at the four sites are compared and analyzed, and students investigate the cause of changes in... (View More) ozone concentration over time. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, an online glossary and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics. (View Less)