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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This is an activity about utilizing proportional mathematics to determine the height of lunar features. Learners will use the length of shadows to calculate the height of some of the lunar features. This activity is Astronomy Activity 6 in a larger... (View More) resource entitled Space Update. (View Less)

In this data exploration activity, students will access, download and graph authentic ozone data for four different locations on Earth. The ozone levels at the four sites are compared and analyzed, and students investigate the cause of changes in... (View More) ozone concentration over time. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, an online glossary and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics. (View Less)

This is an activity about the relative sizes of the Earth and the Moon and the distance between them. Learners will inflate a balloon to the approximate size of the moon in relation to a standard globe. They will then hypothesize as to the correct... (View More) distance between the two and begin to calculate angular size. This is Astronomy Activity 1 in a larger resource, Space Update. (View Less)

This is a lesson about magnetism and solar flares. Learners will evaluate real solar data and images in order to calculate the energy and magnetic strength of a solar flare moving away from the Sun as a coronal mass ejection. This is Activity 3 in... (View More) the Exploring Magnetism in Solar Flares teachers guide. (View Less)

This is an activity about the declining strength of Earth's magnetic field. Learners will review a graph of magnetic field intensity and calculate the amount by which the field has changed its intensity in the last century, the rate of change of its... (View More) intensity, and when the field should decrease to zero strength at the current rate of change. Learners will also use evidence from relevant sources to create a conjecture on the effects on Earth of a vanished magnetic field. Access to information sources about Earth's magnetic field strength is needed for this activity. This is Activity 7 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide. (View Less)

This is an activity about the movement, or "wandering," of our Earth's magnetic poles. The learner will explore this concept by measuring and calculating the distance the Earth's north magnetic pole has moved over the past 400 years and calculating... (View More) the rate at which the magnetic pole location has changed its position during that time. Finally, learners will use this information to extrapolate how the region for viewing aurorae may change over the next century at the present rate of polar wander. This is Activity 6 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 24 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scientific notation, simple algebra, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space... (View More) science topics including solar storms, solar energy, coronal mass ejections, and doppler shift, among others. (View Less)

This activity lets students measure distances in the classroom using parallax. The exercise can be done either at a high school level using trigonometric functions, or at a middle school level using simple arithmetic approximations to the... (View More) trigonometric functions. A work sheet is provided for the middle-school-level activity.The resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

In this lesson, learners will listen to a read-aloud of the history of Saturn discoveries. Next, they learn two reading comprehension strategies (visualizing and wondering) that they can use to become more powerful readers of nonfiction text.... (View More) Finally, students share their work with partners and the class. This is lesson 3 of 12 in the Mission to Saturn Educators Guide, Reading Writing Rings, for grades 3-4. (View Less)

Learners will measure the diameter of a solar flare by making calculations using transparency grids overlaid on images of the Sun. This is the third activity in the lesson "How Does HESSI Take a Picture?" **NOTE: The HESSI mission was renamed... (View More) RRHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager)** after Dr. Reuven Ramaty, who was the original Co-Investigator for this NASA mission, and was a pioneer in the fields of solar physics, gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear astrophysics, and cosmic rays. (View Less)