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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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Students create a physical model illustrating soil water balance using drinking glasses to represent the soil column, and explain how the model can be used to interpret data and form predictions. Using data from the GLOBE Data Server, they calculate... (View More) the potential evapotranspiration, average monthly temperatures and precipitation for their model. This is a learning activity associated with the GLOBE hydrology investigations and is supported by the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. (View Less)

Materials Cost: $1 - $5 per group of students

To determine if data values are reasonable, students need to understand the units of measurement and be able to estimate the expected range of values in data. This activity has groups of students collecting and recording data, changing some of the... (View More) numbers, and challenging each other to identify values that are unreasonable for the data set. Students practice the skills of estimation and recognition of numerical values that are outliers, comparing measurements of common classroom objects and soil moisture. This is a learning activity associated with the Soils Chapter of the GLOBE Teachers Guide. (View Less)

This is a poster about the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) - an international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe.... (View More) Learners can read about DSN, space related careers, and complete an activity about a mathematical model of how the DSN antennas work and how the antennas concentrate electromagnetic radio waves in a single direction. (View Less)

This is an activity about the mathematics of oscillation. Using data obtained in ninth and tenth activities in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide, learners will plot the formula... (View More) X(t)=X(0)cos(ft) or X(t)=X(0)sin(ft), depending on the data obtained during the oscillation experiments. Then, the mathematical model for oscillation is further refined by including damping. This is the eleventh activity in the guide and requires prior use and construction of a soda bottle magnetometer. (View Less)

This is an activity about observing the Sun. Learners will construct a pinhole projector to project an image of the Sun, observe and record the size of the projected image, and calculate the diameter of the Sun using the measurements and a known... (View More) distance to the Sun. This activity is from the Touch the Sun educator guide. (View Less)

Materials Cost: 1 cent - $1 per group of students

This is an activity about the magnetic deflection. Learners will observe and measure the deflection that an iron mass causes in a soda bottle magnetometer and plot the data. The data should show the inverse-square cube law of change in the magnetic... (View More) field. This is the twelfth activity in the guide and requires prior use and construction of a soda bottle magnetometer, as well as a six to ten pound container of iron nails (or an equivalent iron mass). (View Less)

This is an activity about oscillation. Learners will observe, time, and graph the data of the side to side motion of the mirror used in the soda bottle magnetometer activity to determine the mirror's oscillation amplitude. This activity requires... (View More) prior construction and experience in use of a soda bottle magnetometer, which is the eighth activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide. This is the tenth activity in the guide. (View Less)

This is a lesson about the mathematics of auroras. Learners will be exposed to the mathematical formulas that are used to estimate how much magnetic energy is available in the magnetic tail region of Earth. This is the nineteenth activity in the... (View More) Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide. (View Less)

This is an activity about polarized light. Learners will use a polarizing filter to build and calibrate a simple polarimeter, use the constructed polarimeter to find sources of polarized light, and measure the angle of polarization of polarized... (View More) light sources and attempt to measure the strength of polarization. This activity is from the Touch the Sun educator guide. (View Less)

Materials Cost: Over $20 per group of students

In this activity, learners will explore the properties of color filters and filter bandpass by observing light sources using diffraction grating and color filters and create a graph of percent transmission versus wavelength to characterize the... (View More) bandpass of the filter. This activity requires various light sources, a diffraction grating, and two or more color filters that are transparent to some wavelengths of light and opaque, or nearly opaque, at other wavelengths. This is an activity in the Touch the Sun educator guide. (View Less)

Materials Cost: Over $20 per group of students