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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This is a set of three, one-page problems about the size and area of solar panels used to generate power. Learners will will use integer arithmetic to tally the number of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms in a molecule and determine the number of... (View More) methane atoms that can result. Options are presented so that students may learn about how NASA is using signs of methane gas to search for life on other planets, such as Mars, through a NASA press release or about how astrobiologists who are looking for life beyond Earth are using spectroscopy to identify methane plumes on Mars by viewing a NASA eClips video [7 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school. (View Less)

This is a set of three, one-page problems about the scale of objects in images returned by spacecraft. Learners will measure scaled drawings using high-resolution images of the lunar and martian surfaces. Options are presented so that students may... (View More) learn about the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission through a NASA press release or by viewing a NASA eClips video [4 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school. (View Less)

This is a set of four, one-page problems about the size of planets compared to earth. Learners may use ratios to compare planets within our solar system or those outside of our solar system with the earth. Options are presented so that students may... (View More) learn about the MESSENGER mission to Mercury through a NASA press release or by viewing a NASA eClips video [6 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school. (View Less)

This is a set of three, one-page problems about mass and power of spacecraft. Learners will use multi-step equations to solve several diverse problems. Options are presented so that students may learn about different types of power systems to... (View More) generate electricity through a NASA press release or by viewing a NASA eClips video [7 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school. (View Less)

This is a set of four, one-page problems about the distance craft travel on Mars. Learners will use the Pythagorean Theorem to determine distance between a series of hypothetical exploration sites within Gale Crater on Mars. Options are presented so... (View More) that students may learn about the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission through a NASA press release or by viewing a NASA eClips video [6 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school. (View Less)

This collection of 103 individual sets of math problems derives from images and data generated by NASA remote sensing technology. Whether used as a challenge activity, enrichment activity and/or a formative assessment, the problems allow students to... (View More) engage in authentic applications of math. Each set consists of one page of math problems (one to six problems per page) and an accompanying answer key. Based on complexity, the problem sets are designated for two grade level groups: 6-8 and 9-12. Also included is an introduction to remote sensing, a matrix aligning the problem sets to specific math topics, and four problems for beginners (grades 3-5). (View Less)

This is a lesson about statistics in science as it applies to the measurement of dust in space. Learners will be introduced to the concepts of error analysis, including standard deviation. They will apply the knowledge of averages (means), standard... (View More) deviation from the mean, and error analysis to their own distribution of heights and then to the Student Dust Counter (SDC) data to determine the issues associated with taking data including error and noise. (View Less)

This is an online set of information about astronomical alignments of ancient structures and buildings. Learners will read background information about the alignments to the Sun in such structures as the Great Pyramid, Chichen Itza, and others.... (View More) Next, the site contains 10 short problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including determining the scale of a photo, measuring and drawing angles, plotting data on a graph, and creating an equation to match a set of data. Each set of problems is contained on one page and all of the sets utilize real-world problems relating to astronomical alignments of ancient structures. Each problem set is flexible and can be used on its own, together with other sets, or together with related lessons and materials selected by the educator. This was originally included as a folder insert for the 2010 Sun-Earth Day. (View Less)

This math problem determines the areas of simple and complex planar figures using measurement of mass and proportional constructs. Materials are inexpensive or easily found (poster board, scissors, ruler, sharp pencil, right angle), but also... (View More) requires use of an analytical balance (suggestions are provided for working with less precise weighing tools). This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This is a collection of mathematical problems about transits in the solar system. Learners can work problems created to be authentic glimpses of modern science and engineering issues, often involving actual research data.