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**Earth and space science**

**Physical sciences**

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In this activity, students compute the strengths of the gravitational forces exerted on the Moon by the Sun and by the Earth, and demonstrate the actual shape of the Moon's orbit around the Sun. The lesson begins with students' assumptions about the... (View More) motions of the Moon about the Earth and the Earth about the Sun, and then test their understanding using an experimental apparatus made from a cardboard or plywood disk and rope. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

A simple experimental apparatus made of rubber band and books is used by student teams challenged with demonstrating the concepts of friction, force, and inertia. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of... (View More) brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This example shows how Newton's laws of motion apply to aircraft carriers and introduces the lift equation: the amount of lift depends on the air density, the wind velocity, and the surface area of the wings. The problems stress the importance of... (View More) units of measure. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

The force of gravity is the focus of this demonstration using a ruler, string and a paper clip. Students observe that the Earth's gravity is always downward toward the center of the Earth. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the... (View More) video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Phenomenal Weather. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide. (View Less)

Students understand how satellites are placed in orbit by launching marbles into space, using two plastic rulers and clay. They describe the forces that determine the trajectory of flight. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the... (View More) video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Phenomenal Weather. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide. (View Less)

In the state of Maryland, a local politician once claimed that sea level is rising because there are too many people putting boats on the open ocean. Could that result in a significant sea level rise, perhaps even destroy low-lying nations such as... (View More) Bangladesh? This resource explores the principle of buoyancy, and is part of PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

Computer modeling is used to estimate physical quantities that are difficult to measure, in this case, the landing shock experienced by ski jumpers. The model uses physical quantities such as the takeoff inclination, takeoff height, the shape of the... (View More) hill, and the vertical drop to the landing. The landing shock is calculated from the velocity of the skier and angle which he or she hits the hill. This resource describes the computer model, and describes the calculations used to compare the impact of a Nordic skier vs. an aerial jumper. The resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This hands-on activity demonstrates how the combining two fluids (confluence of two rivers, Mediterranean water spilling over the straits of Gibraltar into the Atlantic) involves two processes: (1) stirring - stretching of the bulk fluid, and (2)... (View More) mixing - exchange of materials on the molecular level (diffusion). Milk, chocolate milk, pie pans and stirring sticks are required for this activity. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)