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**Earth and space science**

**Physical sciences**

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This example shows how Newton's laws of motion apply to aircraft carriers and introduces the lift equation: the amount of lift depends on the air density, the wind velocity, and the surface area of the wings. The problems stress the importance of... (View More) units of measure. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

In this experiential activity, students demonstrate to themselves the effect of the optic disc, or blind spot, inherent to the optic nerve entering the posterior of the eye (bulbus oculi). This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and... (View More) Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

Computer modeling is used to estimate physical quantities that are difficult to measure, in this case, the landing shock experienced by ski jumpers. The model uses physical quantities such as the takeoff inclination, takeoff height, the shape of the... (View More) hill, and the vertical drop to the landing. The landing shock is calculated from the velocity of the skier and angle which he or she hits the hill. This resource describes the computer model, and describes the calculations used to compare the impact of a Nordic skier vs. an aerial jumper. The resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

In this demonstration, the process of cooling by evaporation is related to the serious health risk of hypothermia. Materials required include a desk fan, thermometer with exposed bulb, cotton or gauze, bowl, and material including cotton and wool.... (View More) This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

In this inquiry investigation, students explore how light hits things of different shape and form. One real world application to this activity is understanding what we actually observe when we see a solar eclipse. Supplies needed for this lesson... (View More) include solid wooden geometric shapes, overhead projector, flashlights, paper, pencils. This investigation is from "Everyday Classroom Tools," a series of lessons focusing on the changing seasons and other aspects of our everyday existence. Each lesson contains information on cognitive development, an introductory inquiry activity, and an inquiry investigation. An introduction to inquiry in education and related educational resources (especially connections to folklore) are provided for educators. Differentiation is provided for K-2, grades 2-4 and grades 4-6. (View Less)

In this inquiry investigation, students study the motion and positions of the Earth and how they affect the path of sunlight we get in different places. They discover that the Earth must be curved to account for the different lengths of shadows at... (View More) different latitudes and that the Sun is very far away. Supplies required include globes, blue-tak, toothpick, flashlights, and golf tees. This investigation is from "Everyday Classroom Tools," a series of lessons focusing on the changing seasons and other aspects of our everyday existence. Each lesson contains information on cognitive development, an introductory inquiry activity, and an inquiry investigation. An introduction to inquiry in education and related educational resources (especially connections to folklore) are provided for educators. Differentiation is provided for K-2, grades 2-4 and grades 4-6. (View Less)

In this activity, students become familiar with the orientation of shadows, their size in relation to the object casting them, and how the alignment of the Sun, the object, and the shadow tells us much about how shadows work. Supplies needed for... (View More) this investigation include pebbles, coins, marbles or counting blocks, a box of chalk, chalk/wipeboard and markers, overhead projector or lamp. This investigation is from "Everyday Classroom Tools," a series of lessons focusing on the changing seasons and other aspects of our everyday existence. Each lesson contains information on cognitive development, an introductory inquiry activity, and an inquiry investigation. An introduction to inquiry in education and related educational resources (especially connections to folklore) are provided for educators. Differentiation is provided for K-2, grades 2-4 and grades 4-6. (View Less)

In this inquiry investigation, students will learn about how light travels by using mirrors, prisms, and shadow makers. Supplies for this investigation include mirrors, prisms, objects of differing transparency, garden hose or spray bottle,... (View More) flashlights, overhead projector, water and clipboards. This investigation is from "Everyday Classroom Tools," a series of lessons focusing on the changing seasons and other aspects of our everyday existence. Each lesson contains information on cognitive development, an introductory inquiry activity, and an inquiry investigation. An introduction to inquiry in education and related educational resources (especially connections to folklore) are provided for educators. Differentiation is provided for K-2, grades 2-4 and grades 4-6. (View Less)

This hands-on activity demonstrates how the combining two fluids (confluence of two rivers, Mediterranean water spilling over the straits of Gibraltar into the Atlantic) involves two processes: (1) stirring - stretching of the bulk fluid, and (2)... (View More) mixing - exchange of materials on the molecular level (diffusion). Milk, chocolate milk, pie pans and stirring sticks are required for this activity. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)