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**Earth and space science**

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In this activity, students compare two images of the Crab Nebula taken more than 40 years apart. By measuring the motion of some of the knots of glowing gas in the neubla, students will be able to determine the date of the supernova explosion that... (View More) set the Crab Nebula into motion. This is Activity 2 of the "Supernova Educator's Guide" developed by the XMM-Newton and GLAST E/PO programs. The guide features background information, assessment rubrics, student worksheets, extension and transfer activities, and alignment to national education standards. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this science literacy extension students read and analyze two different articles about XMM-Newton discoveries involving neutron stars and their magnetic fields. This is Activity 4 of the Supernova Guide developed by the XMM-Newton and GLAST E/PO... (View More) programs. The guide features extensive background information, assessment rubrics, student worksheets, extension and transfer activities, and detailed information about physical science and mathematics content standards. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this activity, students look at the distribution of aluminum foil balls arranged in a circle on the floor, and compare them to the distribution of gamma-ray bursts on the sky. This activity uses Gamma-ray Bursts as an engagement tool to teach... (View More) selected topics in physical science and mathematics. In addition to the activities, it features background information, assessment information, student worksheets, extension and transfer activities, and detailed information about the physical science and mathematics content standards for grades 9-12. This is Activity 3 of 4 in the guide which accompanies the educational wall sheet titled Angling for Gamma-ray Bursts (View Less)

In these activities, students investigate how gamma ray bursts emit energy in beams (as opposed to emitting light in all directions) and investigate the implications of this on the total number of gamma ray bursts seen in the universe. This activity... (View More) uses Gamma-ray Bursts as an engagement tool to teach selected topics in physical science and mathematics. In addition, the guide features background information, assessment information, student worksheets, extension and transfer activities, and detailed information about the physical science and mathematics content standards for grades 9-12. This is Activity 4 of 4 in the guide which accompanies the educational wall sheet, titled Angling for Gamma-ray Bursts. (View Less)

In this hands-on activity, students analyze the data on Mystery Object Cards, observe that astronomical objects have many observable properties, and discover that these properties allow scientists to categorize astronomical objects into different... (View More) groupings. Students also discover that, because objects can be grouped in different ways, discrete categorization is not always possible. This is why scientists need time to fully study and understand celestial objects and phenomenon. This is activity one in the "Gamma Ray Burst" educational unit. It accompanies a wallsheet that uses gamma-ray bursts as an engagement tool to teach topics in physical science and mathematics. In addition to the activities, the wallsheet features background information, assessment information, student worksheets, and extension and transfer activities. (View Less)

In this activity, students construct base-two slide rules that add and subtract base-2 exponents (log distances), in order to multiply and divide corresponding powers of two. Students use these slide rules to generate both log and antilog equations,... (View More) learning to translate one in terms of the other. This is activity C1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this activity students use log tapes and base-two slide rules as references to graph exponential functions and log functions in base-10 and base-2. Students discover that exponential and log functions are inverse, reflecting across the y = x axis... (View More) as mirror images. This is activity E2 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, the GLAST mission was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this activity students construct Log Rulers, finely calibrated in base-10 exponents and numbers (logs and antilogs). They practice reading these scales as accurately as possible, listing all certain figures plus one uncertain figure. This is... (View More) activity D1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this activity, students graph second and third order functions, discovering an inverse relationship between squares and square roots and between cubes and cube roots. Students graph these functions on both linear grid (evenly spaced numbers), and... (View More) a log-log grid (evenly space exponents). Graph lines that curve on linear grids transform into straight lines on the log-log grids, with slopes equal to their exponential powers. This activity is activity E3 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. (View Less)

In this activity, students build a model of an active galaxy. From this, they will learn about the geometry of the components of an active galaxy and develop an understanding that different viewing angles can lead to dramatically different... (View More) interpretations of a galaxy's appearance. The activity includes background information, glossary, essential questions, extension activities, transfer activities, adaptations for visually-impaired students, and an answer key. Additional materials needed to do this activity include a compass. This is activity one of three in the Active Galaxies education unit. (View Less)