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The importance of rainforests to Earth's biodiversity, climate and production of rainforest products is discussed in this textbook chapter. Includes an interview with an Amazonian rainforest scientist, a discussion of the competing perspectives of different interest groups, and a summary of rainforest issues related to deforestation and logging. Students examine a time series of images of Rodonia, Brazil, and investigate the changes in land cover. There is an associated investigation, where students use image-processing tools to interpret a satellite image of the rainforest in Rodonia, Brazil. This is chapter 5 in the unit, A New World View, which introduces global systems science, emphasizing the concepts of environmental diversity, Earth as a system, and sustainability. The resource includes a textbook chapter, integrated hands-on and inquiry activities, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre- and post-unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.