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This textbook chapter outlines the historical development of the Theory of Natural Selection, presenting classic evidence including Darwin's study of finch beak variation in the Galapagos Islands and Kettlewell’s investigation of the pepper moth in England. A simulation activity depicting the process of natural selection is included. The resource includes a link to current news articles and a teacher's guide with additional investigations and student research project ideas. This is the third chapter in the unit, Losing Biodiversity, examining the endangerment and extinction of entire species of plants and animals throughout the world due to human actions. The resource is part of Global System Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.